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August 26, 2019
August 26, 2019
Following a debate on modalities of stronger cooperation on peace and security between the United Nations and the African Union, the Security Council today welcomed the regional organization’s efforts to create a predictable cost-sharing structure for the funding of peace-support operations authorized by the Council.
Unanimously adopting resolution 2320 (2016), the Council expressed its readiness to consider options in response to the African Union’s proposal to finance 25 per cent of the cost of such operations by 2020. The Council emphasized that consultative analysis and joint planning with the United Nations was critical to developing common joint recommendations on the scope and resource implications of the missions.
By that text, the Council also expressed support for the principles of cooperation set out by the High-Level Independent Panel on Peace Operations for the strategic partnership with the African Union. In addition, it encouraged the African Union to finalize its disciplinary and conduct-compliance frameworks and to achieve greater accountability, transparency and compliance with international human rights and humanitarian law.
Speaking in explanation of position, Egypt’s representative called for a swift discussion within the African Union to set the modalities of support to its peace operations so that the United Nations could respond appropriately. The Russian Federation’s representative expressed regret that the text lacked a commitment to the universal principles of peacekeeping. That absence could result in the door being opened to those principles being breached, he cautioned, adding that the lack of consultation with all Council members was regrettable.
Before it adopted the text, the Council heard briefings delivered by El-Ghassim Wane, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Smaïl Chergui, African Union Commissioner for Peace and Security, Haile Menkerios, the Secretary-General’s Special Representative to the African Union, and Donald Kaberuka, High Representative of the African Union Peace Fund.
The briefers noted the growing cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union in operations that ranged from early response to sustained peacekeeping. They called for strengthening the relationship in order to help face the increased complexity of African conflicts.
“In doing that”, Mr. Wane said, “we ought to be “pragmatic and result-oriented, driven by the imperative to respond to the needs on the ground, assist countries and shattered communities to turn the page from violence and conflict and consolidate peace where it is achieved.”
For that purpose, he said, in addition to mutual work in a range of areas, it was necessary to ensure predictable, flexible and sustainable financing for African operations authorized by the Security Council. He noted that the Secretary-General had commended the African Union’s commitment to self-reliance in the form of the proposal to finance 25 per cent of future peace support operations. The Secretary-General had also urged Member States to give urgent consideration to how the United Nations could respond to that initiative. Today’s debate is an opportunity to initiate a response.
Mr. Antonio said the African Union’s proven ability to act as first responder was a critical element of the evolving international peace and security architecture. The bloc and its subregional organizations had a clear comparative advantage where operations were needed and the United Nations was unable to deploy in a timely manner or unable to mobilize political consensus. In that vein, the African Union had deployed missions to Burundi, Darfur, Somalia, Mali and the Central African Republic. However, African missions were not sustainable over the medium to long term because sufficient means were lacking.
Mr. Menkerios said that, instead of engaging in a series of ad-hoc engagements, the two organizations needed to adopt predictable processes to address threats to international peace and security on the continent. The wheel should not have to be reinvented every time a new conflict in Africa emerged, he stated.
Mr. Kaberuka highlighted the work on the part of both the African Union and the United Nations that would have to be done under the cost-sharing proposal, including defining what a 25 per cent contribution would imply and under what conditions the 75 per cent United Nations contribution would be engaged.
During the ensuing debate, Council members welcomed efforts to strengthen strategic cooperation with the African Union in peace and security under the Charter’s Chapter VIII, and commended the African Union for shouldering increased responsibilities for the continent’s peace and security.
Most speakers fully supported adoption of the resolution and called for intensified consideration of the financing structure in order to ensure that authorized African operations were sustainable.
The Head of the European Union delegation outlined that bloc’s support in that area, calling the proposal for 25 per cent funding a sign of “strong ambition and ownership by the continent”. The Foreign Minister of Senegal, which holds the Council Presidency for November, said he hoped the resolution would provide a foundation for settling the financing issue once and for all.
The representative of the Russian Federation however, stressed that consideration of financing from assessed contributions, in response to the African Union’s proposals, fell under the purview of the General Assembly’s Fifth Committee (Administrative and Budgetary), whose area of expertise should not be usurped by the Security Council.
In additional to sustainable financing, speakers also called for the development of common analysis activities to be conducted by the two organizations, increased engagement between officials at all levels, up-front mission planning, joint visiting missions and mutual standards in codes of conduct, environmental issues and other areas.
While most delegates acknowledged increased mutual engagement between the United Nations and the African Union, Venezuela’s representative underscored his regret that African input to decisions regarding the continent had frequently been ignored. He called for meaningful consultation at every stage of formulating response to conflicts.
Also speaking in the debate were representatives of New Zealand, United States, China, France, Spain, United Kingdom, Japan, Ukraine, Egypt, Uruguay and Malaysia.
The meeting began at 10:10 a.m., ending at 1:10 p.m.
EL-GHASSIM WANE, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, affirmed that despite the well-established strategic partnership of the United Nations with the African Union, there was still need for a stronger one based on an innovative and forward-looking reading of Chapter VIII of the Organization’s Charter. The relationship between the Security Council and the African Union’s Peace and Security Council was of primary importance because the two organs met regularly, he said, adding that their cooperation at the strategic level had been strengthened by the twice-yearly meeting of the Joint Task Force, and at the technical level through the annual Desk-to-Desk meetings.
He said United Nations support for African Union operations had grown into effective African first response to crises, as in the Central African Republic and Mali, to overall management of a hybrid operation such as the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), to the innovative logistics assistance package for African operations in Somalia. However, the number and complexity of current conflicts in Africa highlighted the need to strengthen further operational cooperation with, and in support of, the African Union’s peace support operations.
He went on to say that efforts to that end should be “pragmatic and result-oriented, driven by the imperative to respond to needs on the ground, to help countries and shattered communities turn the page from violence and conflict and to consolidate peace where it is achieved”. For that purpose, it would be necessary to ensure predictable, flexible and sustainable financing for African Union operations authorized by the Security Council, he continued, noting that the Secretary-General had commended the regional bloc’s commitment to self-reliance in the form of the proposal to finance 25 per cent of its future peace support operations. Noting that the Secretary-General had also urged Member States to give urgent consideration to how the United Nations could respond to that initiative, he said today’s debate was an opportunity to initiate a response.
TÉTE ANTÓNIO, Permanent Observer for the African Union, spoke on behalf of the African Union Commission, saying that the regional bloc’s proven ability to act as first responder was critical to the evolving international peace and security architecture. The African Union and its subregional organizations had a clear comparative advantage where offensive operations were needed and the United Nations was unable to deploy in a timely manner, or where the Council was unable to mobilize sufficient political consensus to initiate action, he said, noting that the bloc had deployed missions to Burundi, Darfur, Somalia, Mali and Central African Republic. However, the African Union was unable to sustain missions over the medium to long term because it lacked sufficient means, he said, recalling that. In 2015, at their twenty-fourth ordinary session, the Assembly of African Heads of State and Government had made the commitment to finance 25 per cent of the cost of African Union-led peace support operations from the assessed contribution of its member States.
Against that background, the bloc had argued consistently for predictable and sustainable financing through assessed contributions to the United Nations, he continued. The view was that, in deploying peace support missions, the African Union was doing so on behalf of the Council, which retained primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. The Joint African Union-United Nations Reviews of the mechanisms available to finance and support African Union peace support operations authorized by the Council had concluded that access to assessed contributions to the Organization provided a reliable, predictable and sustainable means of financing such operations. Agreement on that principle was not a new proposition, he said, noting that it was already being implemented in an ad hoc and partial manner in the case of the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM).
He went on to emphasize that access to assessed contributions to the United Nations for African Union peace support operations was a necessary evolution that would only enhance the overall effectiveness of the international peace and security architecture. The bloc was confident that the two organizations could quickly establish a joint process for developing more detailed implementation modalities so as to move towards a substantive framework resolution on predictable financing for African Union-led peace support operations in 2017. Experience had clearly shown that the lack of financial support for African Union missions had a direct impact on their overall success and that of subsequent United Nations operations, since African missions were frequently forced to transition prematurely into United Nations operations. Greater predictability would allow the African Union to properly stabilize a given situation before handing over to a United Nations mission, which would be in the best interest of the African Union, the United Nations as well as peace and security in general.
HAILE MENKERIOS, Special Representative and Head of the United Nations Office to the African Union, said conflicts in Africa today had grown in scale and complexity, posing a greater threat to international peace and security. They had resulted in unimaginable human suffering, eroded political and civic rights, and reversed economic and social development gains. Terrorism, transnational crime, threats to maritime security, weak governance institutions and electoral disputes were just some of the challenges that the continent faced, he said, noting that poverty, unemployment, demographic pressures and climate change were increasingly having an impact on peace and security. While the Security Council had the ultimate responsibility for international peace and security, it was clear that neither the United Nations, the African Union nor regional economic communities could address such threats on their own, he said, emphasizing that collaboration was an absolute necessity.
In that context, the Secretariat and the African Union Commission were making good progress in strengthening cooperation and collaboration between the two organizations, he said. Coordinated interventions had improved in such places as Sudan and South Sudan, where the African Union’s High-Level Implementation Panel had led mediation efforts with the support of the United Nations Special Envoy, and in Burundi, where the United Nations and the African Union supported the efforts of the East African Community facilitator. In addition, there had been daily, weekly and monthly interactions at various levels, he said, adding that the Joint Task Force – comprising senior leaders from the United Nations Secretariat and the African Union Commission – met twice a year. The United Nations also continued to help the Commission to manage African-led peace operations authorized by the Security Council.
He went on to state that a review of the United Nations-African Union partnership revealed that it was time for the two organizations to move towards a more structured partnership. The wheel should not have to be reinvented every time a new conflict emerged on the continent. A strategic partnership would put mechanisms in place and ensure early and continuous engagement. Instead of engaging in a series of ad-hoc engagements, the two organizations must adopt predictable processes for addressing threats to international peace and security on the continent, he said, emphasizing the value of the Secretariat and the African Union Commission undertaking joint analysis of conflicts, developing coherent conflict-prevention strategies, and providing proposals to their two respective parent organizations. Owing to decisions made at the African Union Summit on Financing, held in Kigali, Rwanda, the continent was potentially in a position to finance a greater share of its conflict-prevention and mediation initiatives, he said. However, sustainable funding remained a major challenge, particularly in the three focus areas of the Peace Fund – preventing conflict, building capacity, and peace operations. Establishing a strategic partnership and implementing the African Union’s proposals would enable both organizations to address conflicts more effectively, while helping Africa to achieve long-term peace, he said.
DONALD KABERUKA, High Representative of the African Union Peace Fund, noted that previous speakers had highlighted three important facts: the crises facing the global community were so complex that no single organization could respond on its own; regional organizations enjoyed a comparative advantage in that regard; and financing mechanisms for special funds should be predictable and sustainable, rather than voluntary and ad hoc.
“A well-funded African peace and security architecture is not simply an African priority, it is a global strategic imperative,” he said, emphasizing that his intention was to present ideas on how the Peace Fund could be structured, funded and governed in order to respond to current challenges, while steering away from over-reliance on multiple unpredictable funding channels. Strengthening the Peace Fund would also provide a more effective partnership tool.
During the African Union’s Assembly of Heads of States and Government in July, he recalled, members had focused on the revitalization of the Peace Fund, listing four main priorities: preventive diplomacy, institutional capacity, peace support operations, and the creation of a crisis reserve facility. Concerning peace support operations, the African Union was specifically seeking the support and cooperation of the United Nations by way of assessed contributions for Security Council-authorized African Union-led operations. The implementation mechanism, led by 10 Finance Ministers, would be phased in during 2017, allowing countries to go through the requisite legal, fiscal and institutional mechanisms to ensure compliance with national requirements and international obligations.
There was more work to be done by both the African Union and the United Nations to define what a 25 per cent contribution would imply and the conditions under which the 75 per cent United Nations contribution would be requested. “The African Peace Fund provides a robust mechanism, unified governance and reporting lines, away from the numerous channels and accountability frameworks that raise transaction costs and reduced effectiveness for all,” he stressed, voicing hope that the international community would agree that a revitalized Peace Fund would provide a more coherent partnership framework.
MANKEUR NDIAYE, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Senegalese Abroad of Senegal and Council President for November, spoke in his national capacity, stating that the African Union and the United Nations had a strategic partnership in the maintenance of peace in Africa. The African Union, through political determination and its ability as first responders to erupting crises, had become a major actor in the maintenance of international security. It was focused on strengthening collective security by way of a security architecture in spite of the scope and number of difficulties.
He said the African Union’s peacekeeping operations were local responses to global problems. The partnership with the United Nations should therefore evolve into a strategic partnership. The African Union Peace and Security Council had been active in several crises. However, the absence of predictable, reliable and sustainable financing prevented the full capacity of the African Union to be tapped. There was a need to share the burden. The United Nations should invest in African Union actions to ensure their success. That required greater support for peace operations endorsed by the Council, especially in the area of predictable financing. He expressed hope the resolution to be adopted would provide a foundation for settling once and for all the issue of financing.
ISMAEL ABRAÃO GASPAR MARTINS (Angola) said a more coordinated response and complementary action from all stakeholders at international and regional levels was needed to respond to the evolving challenges posed by violent conflict, humanitarian crises and terrorism. Cooperation between the African Union and the United Nations played a critical role in tackling such challenges. That relationship should evolve into a strategic one. The African Member States were committed to engage in peacekeeping missions with a robust mandate, and, if needed, to enforce peace. That could only be achieved in close cooperation and complementarity with the United Nations and the Council. Predictable funding was needed to guarantee peacekeeping operations in Africa, he said, expressing support for the resolution to be adopted.
HENRY ALFREDO SUÁREZ MORENO (Venezuela), stressing that there was a clear need to strengthen cooperation at strategic levels, said it was crucial that the Council grant a larger role to the African Union. He expressed concern that the Council had the tendency to apply measures under Chapter VII, rather than Chapters VI and VII of the United Nations Charter. The national interests of some Council members had made the Council a body for meddling and putting undue pressure on Africa, such as action in Libya under Chapter VII, and in Western Sahara. The voice of the African Union should be heard in the Council on African matters, for instance in regards to the migrant crisis. The United Nations could not alone address the crises in Africa.
GERARD VAN BOHEMEN (New Zealand) said that over the past two decades African Union member States had demonstrated a willingness to lead the way in resolving conflict and securing peace in the region. Effective cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union was essential in supporting those efforts and maximising their chances of success. To tackle peace and security challenges on the continent, the United Nations and the African Union needed to adopt a structured and integrated approach. In the past, such cooperation had enjoyed varying levels of success and had highlighted ongoing challenges in financing arrangements, logistical support, and mission leadership, as well as shared understandings regarding human rights norms. Missions initially led by the African Union in Mali and the Central African Republic were cases in point. It was therefore time to move beyond the rhetoric of cooperation to arrangements that would have practical application and deliver concrete results. With an aim to strengthen United Nations-African Union partnership, he said that a common understanding was needed on security challenges as a foundation for effective cooperation. Furthermore, the organizations needed to work together to boost the capacities of the African Union and address the issue of financing for African-led operations.
ISOBEL COLEMAN (United States) said that the meeting marked a milestone in building a stronger partnership in peace and security with the African Union, which, despite lacking optimal resources, had already established a commendable record in responding to developing crises. Unfortunately, crises would continue to occur on the continent and ad hoc arrangements could not be continued. The African commitment to provide a percentage of costs was a strong advance in the organization’s self-reliance and in creating a more structured relationship. Among bolstered activities, joint up-front mission planning was a critical element in that relationship, as was harmonized conduct standards, effective reporting and evaluation in both progress toward benchmarks and respect for human rights. All further work must be done hand-in-hand under increased mutual confidence.
LIU JIEYI (China), commending the African Union for its contributions to peace and security, voiced his support towards strengthening cooperation between the organization and the United Nations. However, it was critical to uphold the principles of the Charter in that effort and to continue to respect the primacy of the Security Council in international peace and security. While respecting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of States, cooperation could be strengthened in conflict prevention, collective security, political settlement of conflict and providing information on root causes of conflict. He called for greater support for capacity building for African Union initiatives in those areas and in fighting terrorism and piracy. His country had participated in some 16 United Nations peacekeeping missions in Africa and was providing significant funds for an African standby force, among other efforts.
ANNE GUEGUEN (France), aligning her delegation with the European Union, affirmed the importance of African Union initiatives in peace and security in conjunction with United Nations operations and in promoting sub-regional action to meet such challenges as Boko Haram. She noted that her country, a major partner in capacity building for the African Union, strongly supported increased cooperation between that regional bloc and the United Nations. Acknowledging the added value provided by regional organizations in many situations, she welcomed efforts to establish sustainable financing for African Union peace support operations. Such efforts should be accompanied by the mutual establishment of standards in human rights and conduct. In its handling of such issues, the draft resolution to be voted on framed well the future aspirations for the partnership.
ROMÁN OYARZUN (Spain), aligning himself with the United Kingdom and the European Union, said the partnership between the African Union and the United Nations was key to peace and security in Africa. The rapid evolution of global threats required full use of the comparative advantages of regional organizations. The partnership should not be restricted to peace operations, but should also include conflict prevention and post-conflict issues. In the area of conflict prevention, there often was a possibility for a political solution. It was vital that there be better cooperation between the two organizations in shoring up a joint response and speaking with a single voice. The effectiveness of sanctions also depended on cooperation of the region. The areas of mediation and peaceful settlement of conflicts could also benefit United Nations-African Union cooperation. He welcomed the establishment of the list of women mediators by the African Union.
STEPHEN HICKEY (United Kingdom), aligning himself with Spain, said that there was a need for consultative analysis and joint planning between the African Union and the United Nations. As for pledges, African Union member States were already contributing to peace operations. As well, the African Union had a unique comparative advantage to take on mission enforcement. Its member States had made a commitment to offer an increased financial contribution to African Union peace operations. More detailed discussions were needed, however, to enhance predictability, reliability and flexibility of the financing of African Union peace operations. In addition, challenges included compliance with international humanitarian and human rights law, among others.
KORO BESSHO (Japan), acknowledging the significant evolution of cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union, underscored that the partnership’s true aim was sustaining peace. The African Union had a comparative advantage in its contextual knowledge and mediation abilities to support political solutions, including through the Panel of the Wise. His country had supported African Union mediation efforts and good offices since 1996, the time of the Organization of African Unity. Ultimately, Africa’s socio-economic development would lead to sustainable peace and the African Union’s self-reliance. The African Union Policy on Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Development was a reminder that security and development were closely linked. With a goal of strengthening cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union, the international community should focus on Agenda 2063’s call for economic and human development, conflict prevention and institutions. The Tokyo International Conference on African Development complemented such cooperation and was based on the principles of African ownership and international partnership.
PETR V. ILIICHEV (Russian Federation), noting the complex challenges in peace and security in Africa – some of which were due to arbitrary interference from outside forces – warned of attempts to impose solutions on Africa without regional support. Therefore, he welcomed efforts to foster African-owned solutions, and voiced support for strengthened cooperation with the African Union under Chapter VIII of the Charter in a range of situations and issues such as terrorism, piracy and illicit traffic in drugs. He also stated that he stood ready for constructive dialogue on issues such as effective resource frameworks. Divergence of views among African States must be noted, however. In addition, financing from assessed contributions fell under the purview of the General Assembly’s Fifth Committee (Administrative and Budgetary), whose area of expertise should not be taken over by the Security Council. As well, support to the regional bloc should not be limited to resources, he stated, noting his country’s provision of training and other assistance to African Union members, as well as assistance in stemming conditions that were the root cause of conflict.
YURIY VITRENKO (Ukraine) commended the African Union for often acting as first responder to crises on the continent, providing rapid protection even before the deployment of United Nations peacekeepers. Nevertheless, more was needed to be done in addressing collective security concerns. Stating that financing could bring tangible results, he noted that the African Union’s decision to raise its contribution toward such operations to 25 per cent by 2020 stood to enhance African ownership of the bloc’s peace initiatives. Another area of importance was the need to eliminate the skill gap amongst uniformed personnel. In that context, ensuring deployment readiness could include the dissemination of best practices and the development of special trainings. The United Nations should also provide advice and expertise to the African Union to help deal with prevailing asymmetrical threats, including terrorism and violent extremism. In addition, since the protection of civilians was a crucial factor in the success of peace operations, the merits of a framework for human rights due diligence policy in African Union peace operations should also be weighed.
AMR ABDELLATIF ABOULATTA (Egypt) said there was a growing awareness that no single party could handle by itself the emerging trans-boundary threats such as terrorism and organized crime. The African Union, in cooperation with sub-regional organizations, had undertaken an active role in establishing security and stability in Africa. It did so through intervening at an early time with missions which had flexible mandates. The development of the structure of peace and security in Africa came from a growing awareness of the need for African ownership. The partnership between the African Union and the United Nations was of particular importance as 70 per cent of the Council’s activities was dedicated to situations in Africa. It was therefore important that the strategic partnership with the United Nations was enhanced, based on shared burdens and common responsibilities, including guaranteed financing of African peace operation.
CRISTINA CARRION (Uruguay) said cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations was vital to the collective security in a world facing complex and multiple threats. Cooperation with the African Union was imperative, given the presence there of asymmetric threats, violent extremism and terrorism, as well as violations of human rights. The partnership could be strengthened through increased consultation with the Council. One of the shortcomings in cooperation pertained to the financing of African Union peacekeeping operations. As well, efforts in conflict prevention should be backed by predictable and sustainable resources. The success of operations required more robust cooperation in drafting mandates, for instance, as well as in consultative decision making and joint analysis, and an integrated response to a conflict cycle.
RAMLAN BIN IBRAHIM (Malaysia) urged a further strengthening of the partnership between the African Union and the United Nations in particular on issues of peace and security. Therefore, it was imperative that there be shared assessments. Lessons learned should also be shared on a regular basis in order to avoid redundancy, including through more frequent Secretariat-Secretariat communications. Conflict prevention must be prioritized in United Nations cooperation with regional organizations and should include coordinated actions, including on early detection. Without sufficient financing, however, the ability to deliver would not match the ambitions of regional organizations. Burden sharing should not become burden shifting, he stressed. The unanimous adoption of the resolution would send a strong message of support from the Council to the African Union.
JOÃO VALE DE ALMEIDA, Head of the European Union delegation, said it had invested in a solid triangular cooperation with the United Nations and the African Union to not only respond to short term challenges, but also to develop long term joint capacities. The value of that cooperation was demonstrated by the joint efforts in Somalia, Mali and Central African Republic, as well as in other parts of Africa. Since the African Peace Facility had been created in 2004, more than €2 billion had been transferred from the European Union to the African Union to facilitate peace and security in the region. The majority of those resources had been devoted to support peace operations, which had played a fundamental role in maintaining peace and stability on the continent.
He went on to say that although the European Union and the African region had to work together against the menace of terrorism, long term troop deployments and sustainable financing had been difficult to achieve solely through the African Peace Facility instrument. Therefore, he welcomed the introduction of a 0.2 per cent levy on eligible imports to finance the African Union Peace Fund. Recognizing the need to reorient financial support toward more practical and physical capacities such as logistics and deployment, he pointed out that most funding to date had instead gone to stipends for African troops serving in peace support operations. While that funding remained necessary, improved synergies between the African Peace Fund and the African peace and security architecture were required. To that end, future Peace Fund support would be geared toward prevention and mediation, and the support to peace operations would partially move away from stipends and instead be focused on the strengthening of operational capacities.
The full text of resolution 2320 (2016) reads as follows:
“The Security Council,
“Recalling its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security,
“Recalling also Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations,
“Recognizing that cooperation with regional and subregional organizations in matters relating to the maintenance of peace and security, and consistent with Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, can improve collective security,
“Recalling all its previous relevant resolutions, and statements by its President underscoring the importance of developing effective partnerships between the United Nations and regional organizations, in particular the African Union (AU), in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations,
“Stressing the importance of collaboration between organizations in addressing the complex security challenges facing the international community,
“Reaffirming its commitment to uphold the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, including its commitment and respect to the principles of political independence, sovereign equality and territorial integrity of all States in conducting all peacekeeping activities and the need for States to comply with their obligations under international law,
“Resolving to strengthen the central role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and to ensure the effective functioning of the collective security system established by the Charter of the United Nations,
“Stressing the utility of developing effective partnerships between the UN and regional and subregional organizations, in order to enable timely responses to disputes and emerging crises and to strengthen the role of the UN in the prevention of conflict, and further stressing that the coordination of efforts at the regional level may contribute to the development of a comprehensive strategy to ensure that peacekeeping is effective in addressing threats to international peace and security,
“Commending the progress made in the UN-AU partnership and stressing it should further develop into a systematic and strategic partnership adapted to the complex security challenges facing the Continent,
“Welcoming the UN partnership with the AU in the field of peacekeeping, including by supporting the AU’s efforts to develop policy, guidance and training in particular in the areas of security sector reform, post-conflict reconstruction, women, peace and security and the protection of civilians including child protection and the prevention of and response to sexual and gender-based violence in armed conflicts and post-conflict situations, thereby welcoming the Framework of Cooperation between the Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict and the AU signed on 31 January 2014 and calling for its implementation,
“Commending the work of the United Nations Office to the African Union (UNOAU) to strengthen the partnership between the UN and the AU,
“Acknowledging the important role of the AU in efforts to prevent, mediate and settle conflicts on the African continent, and expressing its support for the continued efforts of the AU to confront threats to international peace and security in Africa consistent with Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations,
“Recalling the commitment made by the Assembly of the AU in January 2015, at its 24th ordinary session to fund 25% of the cost of its peace and security efforts, including peace support operations to be phased in over a five year period, as reaffirmed at the 25th Ordinary session in Johannesburg in July 2015,
“Reaffirming the importance of mobilizing resources from within the Continent in support of the AU peace and security agenda. Encouraging AU Member States to foster the process aiming at finding practical and consensual ways on how to effectively implement the decision made by the Assembly of the AU relating to the Peace Fund, as endorsed by the 27th Ordinary Session of the Assembly held in Kigali, Rwanda, in July 2016,
“Recalling the Report of the High-level Independent Panel on UN Peace Operations (HIPPO), the subsequent Secretary-General report entitled “The Future of United Nations Peace Operations: Implementation of the Recommendations of the HIPPO”, with particular reference to strategic partnership with the African Union and in this regard stresses that this partnership should be underpinned by mutual consultations between the Security Council and the AU PSC in their respective decision making processes and common strategies for a holistic response to conflict, as appropriate, based on respective comparative advantage, burden sharing, consultative decision making, joint analysis and planning missions and assessment visits by the UN and AU, monitoring and evaluation, transparency and accountability, to address common security challenges in Africa in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, including Chapter VIII and the Purposes and principles as well to determine the needs of regional peace support operations,
“Welcoming the letter of the Chairperson of the AU Executive Council, the Foreign Minister of Chad, to the President of the UN Security Council and his request to start discussions, as requested in AU/Dec.605 (XXVII), on “the provision of UN assessed contributions for AU-led peace operations authorized by the Security Council”,
“Taking note of the AU High Representative for the Peace Fund’s Report and proposals on the Decision-making Process for Seeking UN Assessed Contributions for AU Peace Support Operations as a contribution towards further discussions on sustainable financing for AU-led peace support operations on a case by case basis,
“1. Reaffirms its determination to take effective steps to further enhance the relationship between the UN and regional organizations, in particular the AU, in accordance with Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter;
“2. Acknowledges the need for more support to enhance AU peace operations and encourages further dialogue between the UN and AU to achieve this; and takes note with interest the report of the joint AU-UN review of available mechanisms to finance and support African Union peace operations authorized by the UN Security Council of September 2016;
“3. Stresses the need to enhance the predictability, sustainability and flexibility of financing for African Union-led peace support operations authorized by the Security Council and under the Security Council’s authority consistent with Chapter VIII of the Charter;
“4. Reiterates that regional organizations have the responsibility to secure human, financial, logistical and other resources for their organizations, including through contributions by their members and support from partners and welcomes the valuable financial support provided from partners in this regard and commends the African Union’s ongoing efforts and commitment to enhance self-reliance and financing of its activities, in a manner consistent with its member states’ international obligations, as applicable;
“5. Welcomes the AU Assembly decision [Assembly/AU/Dec.605 (XXVII)], adopted at its 27th ordinary session, held in Kigali in July 2016, which also reaffirmed its earlier decision, taken at the 25th ordinary session of the AU assembly to fund 25% of AU peace support operations, to be phased incrementally over five years;
“6. Encourages the AU to finalize its human rights and Conduct and Discipline Compliance frameworks for AU peace support operations, to achieve greater accountability, transparency, and compliance with international human rights law and international humanitarian law, as applicable, and with UN conduct and discipline standards, and underscores the importance of these commitments as well as the requirement for oversight by the Security Council for operations authorized by the Security Council and under the Security Council’s authority consistent with Chapter VIII of the Charter;
“7. Expresses its readiness to consider the proposals of the AU, for future authorization and support by the Security Council for AU peace support operations authorized by the Security Council and under the Security Council’s authority under Chapter VIII of the Charter, including on financing and accountability, and in this regard, invites the AU to update the Security Council within six months of the adoption of this resolution, regarding the details of the proposed scope of peace operations to be considered; the progress, benchmarks, and timelines for implementation of the AU Peace Fund, consistent with applicable international obligations, as well as accountability, transparency, and compliance frameworks for AU peace support operations;
“8. Requests the Secretary-General to continue working closely with the AU to refine options for further cooperation on the relevant AU proposals, including joint planning and the process for mandating AU peace support operations, subject to authorization by the Security Council and to provide the Security Council with a detailed report within six months of the adoption of this resolution;
“9. Recognizes the AU’s commitment to fund 25 percent of AU peace support operation costs by 2020, underscores the need for early and regular engagement between the UN and AU on emerging and ongoing threats in Africa, emphasizes that consultative analysis and joint planning with the UN is critical to developing joint recommendations on the scope and resource implications of potential peace support operations, assessing action and undertaking missions where appropriate, and regularly reporting on such actions when taken, and underscores the importance of full compliance with AU and UN human rights and conduct and discipline policies and arrangements, and encourages further dialogue to establish these processes;
“10. Recognizes the important role of the good offices of the Secretary-General in Africa, and encourages the Secretary-General to continue to use mediation as often as possible to help resolve conflicts peacefully, working in coordination and closely with the AU and other subregional organizations in that regard, as appropriate;
“11. Welcomes the report of the Secretary-General on strengthening the partnership between the United Nations and the African Union in peace and security (S/2016/780), and notes the decision to conduct an assessment of United Nations-African Union cooperation, as well as the structure and capacity of UNOAU to meet the growing demands for the partnership, and requests the Secretary-General to report to the Security Council after completion of such assessment;
“12. Decides to remain seized of the matter.”