Monday, 24/9/2018 | 3:25 UTC+0
Libyan Newswire

Adopting Resolution 2429 (2018), Security Council Renews Darfur Mission Mandate, while Also Calling for Reduction in Troop Strength

Deciding to extend until 30 June 2019 the mandate of the African Union‑United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), the Security Council today unanimously adopted a resolution, also stressing that the drawdown of the mission should be based on progress against related indicators and benchmarks.

By adopting resolution 2429 (2018) on the reports of the Secretary-General on the Sudan and South Sudan, the Council decides that Operation’s authorized troop ceiling should be reduced over the course of this mandate renewal period to consist of up to 4,050 personnel.  It also authorizes the deployment of the necessary police force, not exceeding 2,500 personnel, including individual police officers and members of formed police units, essential for the implementation of the UNAMID mandate.

The Council further requests UNAMID to consolidate the whole-of-system approach to Darfur focused on peacekeeping and providing sustainable solutions to the drivers of conflict with the mission’s current two-pronged approach, to prevent relapse and enable the Government of Sudan, United Nations country team, civil society and other actors to prepare for the eventual exit of UNAMID.

It calls on UNAMID to work closely with the United Nations country team to identify ways to address gaps in capabilities to prepare for the mission’s exit, including a resource mobilization plan to deliver the transition of those responsibilities.  The Council also calls on UNAMID, the country team and other United Nations agencies to coordinate in the transfer of responsibilities.

The Council also calls for an urgent end to intercommunal conflict, criminality and banditry that affect civilians and demands that all parties in Darfur immediately cease all acts of violence, including attacks on civilians, peacekeepers and humanitarian personnel.  Further, it strongly condemns all killings resulting from intercommunal conflicts and other attacks against civilians by militia and armed elements and expresses deep concern over the continued large volumes of arms, particularly small arms and light weapons.

Emphasizing the primary responsibility of Sudan in the establishment of peace and security throughout Darfur, the Council urges the Government to focus its efforts in supporting and cooperating with UNAMID and the United Nations country team in fulfilment of its tasks.  Further, it stresses the importance of adequate resourcing for the country team.

It takes note of the recommendation in the Special Report that the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) should open an office in Sudan, and requests the Government engage in discussions with OHCHR about its establishment.  The Council further emphasizes the crucial role that the African Union has in the stabilization of Darfur, encouraging the Government, UNAMID and the United Nations country team to engage with regional actors.

It urges close coordination among United Nations missions in the region, including UNAMID, the United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA), United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS), United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) and the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA).

Expressing concern over the insufficient availability of funding for humanitarian actors, the Council also demands that all parties to the conflict in Darfur create the conditions conducive to allowing the voluntary, informed, dignified and sustainable return of refugees and internally displaced peoples, or their local integration to a third location within the context of its protection of civilians mandate.

The Council further welcomes increased opportunities for explosive remnants of war clearance with improvements in the security situation in some parts of Darfur, and underscores that UNAMID, in cooperation with the United Nations Mine Action Service, should continue to undertake clearance efforts with a focus on areas of return.

It also requests the Secretary-General to report to the Council every 90 days following adoption of this resolution, including on information on the political, humanitarian and security situation in Darfur, including from areas where UNAMID has withdrawn.

Omer Dahab Fadl Mohamed (Sudan) said the reality on the ground in the five Darfur states is undeniable.  Since 2015, Darfur has enjoyed security stability, including with regards to its humanitarian situation.  Darfur does not rely on one or two documents alone.  In fact, it is relying on the facts and the reality on the ground.  Meanwhile, the Government recognizes the importance of the peacebuilding process.  He called on the international community, the United Nations and donors to provide financial and development support to Sudan and stand with the Government to implement related plans as soon as possible.  He also noted that Sudan has been removed from the list of violations against children.  Adoption of today’s resolution has reaffirmed that “life in Darfur has returned to normal” following years of conflict.  The Government of Sudan stood ready to continue to cooperate with UNAMID and other United Nations entities to continue to normalize the situation in Darfur, he added.

The meetings began at 11:19 a.m. and ended at 11:28 a.m.

Resolution

The full text of resolution 2429 (2018) reads as follows:

The Security Council,

Reaffirming all its previous resolutions and presidential statements concerning the situation in Sudan and underlining the importance of full compliance with these,

Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, unity, independence and territorial integrity of Sudan and its determination to work with the Government of Sudan, in full respect of its sovereignty, to assist in tackling the various challenges in Sudan,

Recalling the importance of the principles of the peaceful settlement of international disputes, good neighbourliness, non-interference and cooperation in the relations among States in the region,

Reaffirming the basic principles of peacekeeping, including consent of the parties, impartiality and non-use of force, except in self-defence and defence of the mandate, and recognizing that the mandate of each peacekeeping mission is specific to the country concerned, and recalling S/PRST/2015/22,

Recalling all its relevant resolutions on women, peace and security, on children and armed conflicts, on the protection of humanitarian and United Nations personnel, and on the protection of civilians in armed conflicts,

Underlining, without prejudice to the Security Council’s primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, the importance of the partnership between the United Nations and the African Union, consistent with Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, with regard to the maintenance of peace and security in Africa, particularly in Sudan,

Noting the African Union Peace and Security Council communique PSC/PR/COMM.(DCCLXXVIII) on the renewal of the mandate of the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID),

Recalling resolution 2378 (2017), which requests the Secretary-General to ensure that data related to the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations, including peacekeeping performance data, is used to improve analytics and evaluation of mission operations, based on clear and well identified benchmarks, and further recalling resolution 2242 (2015) and its aspiration to double the number of women in military and police contingents of United Nations peacekeeping operations by 2020,

Current situation

Welcoming the improvement in security conditions while expressing concern that the security situation in Darfur remains precarious due to the destabilizing activities of a number of actors, including elements of some armed movements, auxiliary units of the Government of Sudan forces and militia groups, and which further exacerbate insecurity, threats against civilians in Darfur, inter-communal violence, acts of criminality, and the lack of development and rule of law,

Welcoming the reduction of military confrontations between Government forces and rebel groups, noting the announcement of unilateral cessations of hostilities by the Government of Sudan and by the Sudan Liberation Army/Minni Minnawi (SLA/MM), the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)/Gibril and the Sudan Liberation Movement-Transitional Council (SLM-TC),

Expressing concern at ongoing clashes in Jebel Marra, which have resulted in burning down of villages, new civilian displacement, and restricted humanitarian access, condemning any violations of unilateral cessations of hostilities and urging all parties to abide by their unilateral cessations of hostilities, where they exist, and to immediately agree to a permanent ceasefire,

Recalling its resolution 2117 (2013) and expressing concern at the threat to peace and security in Darfur arising from the illicit transfer, destabilizing accumulation and misuse of small arms and light weapons, and the continued threats to civilians posed by unexploded ordnance, recognizing the role of the Sudan-Chad Joint Border Force and the weapons-collection programme launched by the Government in this regard, and noting that the programme has contributed to the reduction in inter-communal violence and criminality,

Reiterating its demand that all parties to the conflict in Darfur immediately end violence, including attacks on civilians, peacekeepers and humanitarian personnel,

Noting that, notwithstanding the significant decrease in intercommunal conflicts, they remain one of the main sources of violence in Darfur and expressing concern at ongoing inter-communal conflicts over land, access to water and other resources, migration issues and tribal rivalries, including with the involvement of paramilitary units and tribal militias, as well as at the persistence of attacks against civilians, sexual and gender-based violence and grave violations against children, and that crucial grievances that caused the conflict remain unaddressed,

Welcoming efforts by the Government of Sudan, including local authorities, to restore law and order through the deployment across Darfur of additional human and material resources for policing, corrections and judiciary, noting that rule of law capacity remains limited, urging the Government of Sudan to consolidate and expand its efforts to end impunity and to enhance the protective environment for the civilian population, without any discrimination, particularly with respect to violations and abuses of women’s rights and sexual and gender-based violence as well as grave violations and abuses against children, and acknowledging the important role UNAMID has played in strengthening rule of law institutions, and noting requests from state and local officials for increased rule-of-law capacity building assistance from the UN country team and UNAMID, particularly to benefit the Sudanese police and judicial and corrections institutions, to establish a protective environment,

Emphasizing that those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights must be held accountable and that the Government of Sudan bears the primary responsibility to protect civilians, including women and children, within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction, including protection from crimes against humanity and war crimes,

Humanitarian situation and displacement and development issues

Welcoming significant reductions in the number of internally displaced persons, while expressing concern that a very significant number, approximately two million people, remain long term displaced, most of whom are in need of humanitarian assistance, and that new civilian displacements have occurred in the first and second quarters of 2018 as a result of clashes in Jebel Marra, that these clashes have also negatively impacted humanitarian operations in those areas, and calling on the Government of Sudan to facilitate immediately unhindered access for UNAMID and humanitarian actors to populations in need of humanitarian assistance, including those in areas of conflict,

Welcoming some improvements in the protective environment, and noting the reduction in the number of reported cases of human rights violations and abuses, while recognizing UNAMID’s reduced ability to monitor and verify reported human rights violations and abuses in the areas from which it has withdrawn and expressing concern that IDPs continue to face grave security threats including being killed, raped, or harassed as they conduct life-sustaining activities outside the camps and the worrying levels of sexual and gender-based violence and grave violations against children, as well as findings in February 2018 from the UN Special Representative of the Secretary General on Sexual Violence in Conflict that indicated an increase in sexual violence against children in Darfur, that victims of sexual violence often face denial, shame and stigma preventing them from reporting the crime or seeking assistance, further compounding their suffering, and denial of justice and accountability,

Encouraging the Government of Sudan to swiftly ensure that the UNAMID team sites already handed over and team sites that will be handed over in the future are utilized in line with the agreements made between UNAMID and Government of Sudan,

Underlining the importance of the Government of Sudan addressing the root causes of conflict and extending state authority, including through the strengthening of the rule of law and respect for human rights throughout Darfur in order to make the transition to peacebuilding possible and which should rapidly deliver real benefits for the people of Darfur,

Recognizing the adverse effects of climate change, ecological changes and natural disasters, among other factors, on the situation in Darfur, including through drought, desertification, land degradation and food insecurity,

Recognizing that the current national economic and fuel crisis in Sudan is having a negative impact on the humanitarian situation, food security, and the ability of the Sudanese government institutions, including the police, to provide services and access to areas of Darfur, expressing concern that the total number of people in need of humanitarian assistance in Sudan has increased from 5.5 million to 7.1 million as a result, and calling on the Government of Sudan to ensure safe and unhindered humanitarian access to meet the urgent needs of this population, and calling on donors, the regional authorities in Darfur, and the Government of Sudan to provide the financial resources necessary to reach those in need, including through the United Nations country team, and to undertake activities in support of the transition to peacebuilding, and urging the Government of Sudan and the local authorities to ensure there is an environment conducive to the provision of such activities, including improving access for development and peacebuilding actors,

Urging the Government of Sudan to ensure that the Darfur Peace Follow-up Office is properly resourced in order to continue implementation of the work of the former Darfur Regional Authority and the Commissions, urging donors and the Government of Sudan to honour their pledges and fulfil their obligations in a timely manner, including those commitments made at the conference in Doha in April 2013,

Affirming that development can support a lasting peace in Darfur, noting that the Darfur Development Strategy only extends through 2019 and calling on the Government of Sudan and donors to engage and support the strategic review of the Darfur Development Strategy, with a view to extending it to 2025, and further calling on donors to ensure their funding is adequately aligned to Darfur’s current development needs,

Recalling the commitments made by the Government of Sudan and other signatories to the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur (DDPD) to ensure the unhindered access of humanitarian assistance to the population in need and the protection of humanitarian workers and their operations in areas under their control, as well as to guarantee UNAMID unfettered freedom of movement in all areas and at all times in Darfur in the exercise of its mandate, and further recalling the role of the Implementation Follow-up Commission (IFC) in assessing the implementation of the DDPD,

Political situation

Reiterating that there can be no military solution to the conflict in Darfur, and that an inclusive political settlement is essential to ensuring peace, and underscoring the importance of fully addressing the root causes of the conflict, including management of land, water and other resources, in this regard reaffirming its support for the DDPD as a viable framework to address the root causes of the conflict, including for the peace process in Darfur, and for its accelerated implementation and noting that UNAMID’s ability to facilitate progress in implementation of the DDPD is hampered by delays and the absence of an inclusive political settlement between the Government of Sudan and non-signatory armed movements,

Reiterating its support for the African Union High Level Implementation Panel (AUHIP) and the Roadmap, regretting the lack of progress in implementation, and urging all parties to immediately re-engage in negotiations with the AUHIP on the Roadmap to make immediate progress on the implementation of the Roadmap, including the signing of cessation of hostilities and humanitarian assistance agreements among the parties consistent with the first phase of the Roadmap, urging the signatories to consider mutually acceptable, viable options for the implementation of the Roadmap and further urging non-signatory groups to join negotiations without delay,

Noting that the Government of Sudan has continued to express its openness for outstanding opposition groups to join the Sudan National Dialogue process, and encouraging the Government of Sudan to create a more conducive and inclusive environment that would enable outstanding opposition groups to contribute to this process, including by contributing to the recommendations agreed in the national document, modalities for their implementation, and to join the National Dialogue process that would include the drafting of a new constitution,

Noting that local dispute resolution mechanisms play an important role in preventing and resolving inter-communal conflict, including conflict over natural resources, urging an intensification of effective efforts to prevent local disputes leading to violence, with its corresponding impact on the local civilian populations, acknowledging the efforts of Sudanese authorities, with the support of UNAMID, efforts of the United Nations country team and civil society, particularly through the Darfur Community Peace and Stability Fund (DCPSF), in this regard, welcoming the encouraging conclusion of several inter-communal peace agreements, with support from UNAMID, the United Nations country team and civil society, and urging their continued work in collaboration with the Government of Sudan to find sustainable solutions to these conflicts,

Welcoming regional and other initiatives, undertaken in close interaction with the Government of Sudan, to address the root causes of the conflict in Darfur and to promote a sustainable peace, commending the efforts of the AU-HIP, led by President Thabo Mbeki and the efforts of the Joint Special Representative (JSR) to secure peace, stability and security in Darfur, including through support to international, regional and national efforts to revitalize the peace process and increase its inclusiveness,

Calling on all parties to comply with their obligations under international human rights law and international humanitarian law, stressing the importance that the Council attaches to ending impunity including through ensuring accountability and bringing to justice the perpetrators of crimes, including sexual and gender-based violence, committed by all parties in Darfur, urging the Government of Sudan to comply with its obligations in this respect, recognizing the role of the Special Prosecutor for Darfur appointed by the Government of Sudan, particularly with respect to cases of sexual and gender-based violence, and stressing the need for progress in particular in investigating and prosecuting sexual and gender-based violence cases with respect to perpetrators on all sides, reiterating the call for swift progress on the draft Memorandum of Understanding providing for UNAMID and African Union observation of the proceedings of the Special Court, and calling on the Government of Sudan to investigate swiftly attacks against UNAMID, and to bring the perpetrators to justice,

Reaffirming its concern over the negative effect of instability in Darfur on the stability of Sudan as a whole as well as the region, expressing serious concern at the presence of Darfur armed movements in conflict areas outside Sudan and their involvement in migrant smuggling, criminal activity banditry and mercenary activities and encouraging cooperation between regional state actors to address cross-border issues, such as weapons smuggling, in order to achieve peace and stability in Darfur and the wider region, and recalling in this regard the arms embargo as contained in paragraph 9 of resolution 1556 (2004) and paragraph 7 of resolution 1591 (2005), as updated in paragraph 9 of resolution 1945 (2010) and paragraph 4 of resolution 2035 (2012),

Commending UNAMID for the successful implementation of resolution 2363, in particular the completion of phase one and two of its reconfiguration and reiterating its full support for UNAMID,

Noting with appreciation the Special Report of the Secretary-General and the Chairperson of the African Union Commission of 1 June 2018 (document S/2018/530) (the ‘Special Report’),

Welcoming the improvement in freedom of movement for UNAMID as well as in the issuance of visas for UNAMID staff and the processing of UNAMID containers, but expressing concern that restrictions remain in place, including restrictions from the Government of Sudan on the conduct of night patrols all over Darfur and restrictions preventing UNAMID and humanitarian actors from reaching areas where there are instances of conflict in a timely fashion in response to the ongoing reports of violent incidents in the Jebel Marra area, and that obstacles, including bureaucratic obstacles, imposed on UNAMID continue to jeopardize its ability to deliver on its mandate, including visa restrictions targeted at some elements of UNAMID, particularly the human rights section, and ongoing delays in the processing of UNAMID containers, recognizing the Government of Sudan’s commitment to cooperate with UNAMID and humanitarian personnel on all logistical issues and calling on the Government of Sudan to honour continuously its commitment in full to ensure that humanitarian personnel and UNAMID can operate in support of addressing basic needs,

Determining that the situation in Sudan constitutes a threat to international peace and security,

“1.   Decides to extend until 30 June 2019 the mandate of UNAMID;

“2.   Recalls its support in resolution 2363 (2017) for UNAMID to adopt a two-pronged approach as set out in paragraph 2 of resolution 2363 (2017), reiterates its continued support for this approach, takes note of the recommendations in the Secretary-General and Chairperson of the African Commission in the Special Report (2/2018/530) that presents a whole-of-system approach for Darfur which includes a new mission concept with adjusted priorities for UNAMID as well as a transition concept in collaboration with the United Nations country team over a two-year timeframe with a view towards the exit of the Mission on 30 June 2020 and liquidation by December 2020, provided that there is no significant change in the security situation in Darfur and key indicators are fulfilled;

“3.   Requests UNAMID to consolidate the whole-of system-approach to Darfur focused on peacekeeping and providing sustainable solutions to the drivers of conflict with the Mission’s current two-pronged approach, in order to prevent relapse and enable the Government of Sudan, United Nations country team, civil society, as well as international actors to prepare for UNAMID’s eventual exit;

“4.   Underlines the need to keep the situation in all areas of Darfur under review, to conduct regular reviews of the geographic deployment of UNAMID’s force and to maintain the flexibility within UNAMID to respond to developments throughout Darfur as the situation requires;

“5.   Decides that UNAMID’s authorized ceiling for troops shall be reduced over the course of this mandate renewal period to consist of up to 4,050 personnel unless the Security Council decides to adjust the scope and pace of the reduction;

“6.   Authorizes the deployment of the necessary police force, not exceeding 2,500 personnel, including individual police officers and members of formed police units, essential for the implementation of UNAMID’s mandate, supports the recommendations in the Special Report on the increase in personnel deployed to certain formed police units;

“7.   Requests the Secretary-General to provide in his second 90 day report requested in paragraph 53, and the Secretary-General and the Chairperson of the African Commission, in consultation with UNAMID, to provide through a strategic review by 1 May 2019, an assessment on the following:

(i)   progress in implementing the reconfiguration as outlined in paragraphs 5 and 6 of this resolution;

(ii)  the overall impact of further reductions on the areas that UNAMID has withdrawn from, including protection needs, violations and abuses of human rights, sexual and gender-based violence and grave violations against children, as well as violations of international humanitarian law, and the ability for humanitarian and development actors to provide assistance;

(iii) the Government of Sudan’s cooperation with UNAMID, including ensuring that UNAMID has unfettered freedom of movement and the ability to facilitate the delivery of humanitarian assistance throughout Darfur and the flexibility to open and close UNAMID operating bases and the ability for UNAMID’s forces to return, without impediments or obstacles, to areas throughout Darfur, including to areas that it has withdrawn from;

(iv)  the removal of bureaucratic hindrances to UNAMID, including with regard to customs clearances, flight clearances, and visas;

(v)   whether the conditions on the ground remain conducive to further reductions;

(vi)  whether the capacity of the United Nations country team and the Government of Sudan, including the Sudanese police and Sudanese correctional and judicial institutions, have increased to the level necessary to absorb former UNAMID tasks, including an assessment of the preparations set out in paragraphs 17 and 52 of this resolution;

“8.   Expresses its intention to review by 30 June 2019 the scope and pace of the reconfigurations and further closure taking into account the findings of the 1 May 2019 strategic review requested in paragraph 7 of this resolution;

“9.   Stresses that, in the context of the evolving security situation, drawdown of the Mission should be based on progress against the indicators and benchmarks as outlined in paragraph 50, and the conditions on the ground, and implemented in a gradual, phased, flexible and reversible manner, and that a reduction in the uniformed component should preserve the hybrid nature of the Mission and should prioritize the retention of the highest performing contingents;

“10.  Underlines the need for appropriate staffing levels in accordance with the reconfiguration of UNAMID, including the increased focus on stabilizing the situation in Darfur;

“11.  Decides that UNAMID’s redefined strategic priorities, as recommended in the Special Report, are:

(i)   The protection of civilians, monitoring and reporting on human rights, sexual and gender-based violence and grave violations against children, the facilitation of humanitarian assistance and the safety and security of humanitarian personnel;

(ii)  Mediation between the Government of Sudan and non-signatory armed movements on the basis of the DDPD;

(iii) Support for the mediation of inter-communal or other local conflict that could undermine the security situation, including through measures to address its root causes, in conjunction with the Government of Sudan, the United Nations country team and civil society;

“12.  Requests that UNAMID continue to align all its activity and direct the use of its resources to the achievement of these priorities, discontinue all other tasks not aligned to these priorities and continue to streamline the Mission accordingly, requests all components of the UNAMID Force, police and civilian components to work together in an integrated way, requests UNAMID the United Nations country team and other United Nations entities operating in Darfur to strengthen integration and stresses the importance of the appropriate distribution of tasks and coordination between UNAMID and the United Nations country team;

“13.  Reaffirms that UNAMID must continue to give priority in decisions about the use of available capacity and resources to: (a) the protection of civilians across Darfur; and (b) ensuring safe and unhindered humanitarian access, and the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and activities, in accordance with relevant provisions of international law and the United Nations guiding principles on humanitarian assistance; and requests UNAMID to maximize the use of its capabilities, in cooperation with the United Nations country team and other international and non-governmental actors, in the implementation of its mission-wide comprehensive strategy for the achievement of these objectives;

“14.  Stresses the need for coordination and cooperation between the Government of Sudan, including local authorities, United Nations entities and development actors to work together, including to stabilize and improve the security situation and assist in restoration of State authority;

“15.  Decides, acting under Chapter VII, to extend the authorizations to take the necessary action set out in paragraph 15 of resolution 1769 (2007), as further elaborated in paragraph 16 of this resolution; and urges UNAMID to deter any threats against itself and its mandate;

“16.  Decides that the mandate of UNAMID shall, in pursuit of the strategic priorities described in paragraph 11 of this resolution, include the tasks set out in paragraph 15 resolution 2363 (2017);

“17.  Expresses support for the Secretary-General’s recommendation that joint UNAMID-UN country team liaison offices be established in the capitals of all Darfur states, except for where Mission sites would remain, through which key substantive UNAMID components and United Nations country team staff should be co-located, as appropriate and within existing resources, to form joint teams, as determined jointly by UNAMID and the United Nations country team;

“18.  Requests UNAMID to collaborate with the United Nations country team to support the transition of the Mission, as appropriate and in accordance with its relevant mandated tasks set out in paragraph 16 above, through the joint state liaison offices, on the joint activities set out in the Special Report in paragraphs 51-55;

“19.  Underscores that UNAMID’s police component, should focus in particular on the following activities as set out in paragraph 44 of the Special Report:

(i)   Supporting physical protection of civilians and facilitating humanitarian assistance;

(ii)  Creating a protective environment by coordinating development and training of the Government of Sudan police in Darfur;

(iii) Conducting community orientated policing initiatives in conjunction with the United Nations country team, including on sexual and gender-based violence and child protection; pursued through engagement in the State Liaison Offices and Khartoum level;

“20.  Emphasizes the primary responsibility of the Government of Sudan in the establishment of peace and security throughout Darfur and urges the Government of Sudan to focus its utmost efforts in supporting and cooperating with UNAMID and the United Nations country team in fulfilment of the tasks set out in paragraph 18 of this resolution;

“21. Stresses the importance of adequate resourcing for the United Nations country team to provide support as highlighted in this resolution and encourages Member States and relevant organizations to consider providing the necessary voluntary funding;

“22.  Takes note of the recommendation in the Special Report that an Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) should open an office in Sudan in order to assist in the strengthening of human rights protections, requests the Government of Sudan to engage in discussions with the OHCHR as regards the establishment and activities of an office in Sudan with a full mandate for human rights protection and promotion;

“23.  Emphasizes the crucial role that the African Union has in the stabilization of Darfur and encourages the Government of Sudan, UNAMID, and the United Nations country team to engage with the African Union Commission, through its relevant departments, in support of the tasks referenced in paragraph 18 of this resolution and in support of the political process, security sector reform and DDR;

“24.  Welcomes efforts to increase the effectiveness of UNAMID, and in this regard, underlines that UNAMID should ensure a higher degree of flexibility in its military deployments throughout Darfur and enhance the field presence of individual police officers and calls on the Secretary-General to ensure that Memoranda of Understanding (MoUs) and Statements of Unit Requirements (SURs) between UNAMID troop- and police-contributing countries and the United Nations reflect this need;

“25.  Requests UNAMID to ensure that any support provided to non-United Nations security forces is provided in strict compliance with the Human Rights Due Diligence Policy on United Nations support to non-United Nations security forces (HRDDP), and requests the Secretary-General to include progress made in implementing the policy in his reports to the Security Council;

“26.  Welcomes the initiatives undertaken by the Secretary General to standardize a culture of performance in UN peacekeeping, and calls on him to continue his efforts to develop an integrated performance policy framework and apply it to UNAMID, requests the Secretary-General to seek to increase the number of women in UNAMID, as well as to ensure the meaningful participation of women in all aspects of operations;

“27.  Requests UNAMID to ensure that the necessary gender analysis and technical gender expertise is included throughout all stages of mission planning, mandate development, implementation, review and mission drawdown, ensuring that the protection and promotion of women’s and girls’ rights and empowerment, their needs and participation are sustained despite the reduction in UNAMID’s presence, or handed over in a sustainable way, and further requests enhanced reporting by UNAMID on this issue and further requests UNAMID to assist in harnessing the capacity of women to participate in the peace process, including through political representation, economic empowerment and protection from gender-based violence;

“28.  Urges close coordination among United Nations missions in the region, including UNAMID, the United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA), the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS), the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) and the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA), and requests the Secretary-General to ensure effective inter-mission cooperation;

Political Situation

“29.  Welcomes that progress has been made in implementation of elements of the DDPD, including the accession of Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM)-Second Revolution to the Document, the integration of former rebels into power structures of Sudan and the ongoing DIDC, but expresses concern at continuing delays in implementation overall, including provisions related to compensation and the creation of a conducive environment enabling the return of IDPs and refugees; urges the signatory parties to implement the DDPD in full, acknowledges the establishment of the Darfur Peace Follow Up Office in place of the Darfur Regional Authority and urges the Government and signatory parties to ensure that the institutions established under it are resourced and empowered to carry out their mandates; demands that the non-signatory armed movements refrain from impeding the implementation of the DDPD; and encourages UNAMID and the United Nations country team to continue to engage fully in support of implementation of the DDPD;

“30.  Expresses concern at restrictions on political freedoms, including the detention of large numbers of members of political opposition in January 2018 some of whom have subsequently been released, encourages the Government of Sudan to support an environment that is conducive to the participation of the opposition in political processes, including the National Dialogue, as well as the opposition’s participations in the implementation of National Dialogue recommendations and any future follow-up, and the national elections scheduled for 2020;

“31.  Emphasizes the importance of the work of the AU-HIP, encourages all parties to the conflict to engage constructively with the AU-HIP to implement the AU‑HIP Roadmap in full and in this regard condemns the attitude of those who refuse to join immediately and without pre-conditions, the mediation process, including the Sudan Liberation Army Abdul Wahid (SLA/AW), urges the SLA/AW to join the peace process, without pre conditions, in order to achieve a cessation of hostilities as a first step towards a comprehensive and sustainable peace agreement; expresses its intention to consider imposing additional measures against any party that impedes the peace process;

“32.  Reaffirms its support for a Darfur-based internal dialogue that takes place in an inclusive environment with full respect for the civil and political rights of participants, including the full and effective participation of women and IDPs;

“33.  Calls for an urgent end to inter-communal conflict, criminality and banditry that affect civilians, acknowledges efforts of Sudanese authorities and local mediators to mediate in inter-communal conflict; further calls for reconciliation and dialogue, underlines the need for sustainable solutions to the root causes of inter communal conflict, and welcomes UNAMID’s intention to intensify its efforts to support the mediation of inter-communal conflict within the framework of its mandate and strategic priorities;

Security

“34.  Demands that all parties to the conflict in Darfur immediately cease all acts of violence, including attacks on civilians, peacekeepers and humanitarian personnel and commit themselves to a sustained and permanent ceasefire, in order to bring a stable and durable peace to the region;

“35.  Welcomes the recommendation of the Special Representative of the Secretary General for Sexual Violence in Conflict for the Government of Sudan to look to adopt a Joint Communiqué with the United Nations to address conflict-related sexual violence, including through close cooperation with the Special Representative’s office, UNAMID, and the UN country team, focusing on survivors’ access to medical, psychosocial, legal and socioeconomic services, monitoring, analysis, documentation and information sharing on sexual violence, rule of law responses to conflict-related sexual violence, and engagement with the security sector. religious leaders, and civil society, demands that the parties to the conflict cease immediately all acts of sexual and gender-based violence and make and implement specific and time-bound commitments to combat sexual violence, in accordance with resolution 2106 (2013); with UNAMID closely supporting and monitoring their implementation including through Women Protection Advisers, urges the Government of Sudan, with the support of the United Nations, in particular the Special Representative of the Secretary General for Sexual Violence in Conflict, and the African Union, to develop a structured framework through which conflict related sexual violence will be comprehensively addressed, to cooperate with UNAMID to enable comprehensive reporting of and response to incidents of sexual and gender-based violence, allow access for service provision for sexual violence survivors and hold perpetrators accountable; requests UNAMID to strengthen its monitoring, analysis and reporting on sexual and gender-based violence and actions taken to combat it, including through the swift deployment of Women Protection Advisers; requests the Secretary-General to ensure that the relevant provisions of resolutions 1325 (2000), 2242 (2015), and subsequent resolutions on women, peace and security, are implemented, including supporting the full and effective participation of women during all stages of peace processes, particularly in conflict resolution, post-conflict planning and peacebuilding, including women’s civil society organizations, and to include information on this in his reporting to the Council; further requests UNAMID to monitor and assess the implementation of these tasks and requests the Secretary-General to include information on this in his reporting to the Council;

“36.  Welcomes the commitment of the Secretary-General to enforce strictly his zero-tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuse, notes the various measures taken by UNAMID and troop- and police-contributing countries to combat sexual exploitation and abuse, stresses the urgent need for troop- and police-contributing countries and, as appropriate, UNAMID, to take the steps necessary to conduct investigations of allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse as expeditiously as possible, and in line with the Secretary-General’s request, further urges all troop- and police contributing countries to take appropriate steps to hold accountable those personnel responsible for sexual exploitation and abuse and further stresses the need to prevent such exploitation and abuse and to improve how these allegations are addressed in line with resolution 2272 (2016);

“37.  Recalls its presidential statement S/PRST/2015/22 and its resolution 2272 (2016) and requests the Secretary-General to take all necessary measures to ensure full compliance of UNAMID with the Secretary General’s zero tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuse and to ensure that all personnel of the mission are vetted for history of sexual misconduct in the service with the United Nations and to keep it informed through his reports about UNAMID’s progress in this regard, and urges troop- and police-contributing countries to take appropriate preventative action including the delivery of robust sexual exploitation and abuse pre-deployment awareness training, and to ensure full accountability in cases of such conduct involving their personnel;

“38.  Welcomes the Government of Sudan’s completion of the Action Plan for the Protection of Children from violations in armed conflict, to inter alia end child recruitment and use in its armed and security forces, and the de-listing of the Government of Sudan from the Secretary General’s report on Children and Armed Conflict in this regard, encourages the Government of Sudan to sustain preventative efforts by transforming the Action Plan into a National Prevention Plan of grave violations against children, to continue to operationalize the complaint mechanism on a community level, to strengthen birth registration and awareness-raising, demands that the parties to the conflict cease immediately all violations and abuses against children and that the Government of Sudan hold perpetrators accountable, urges SLA/MM and JEM/Gibril to expedite the implementation of their respective Action Plans to end child recruitment and use in full and calls on SLA/AW to engage into dialogue with the United Nations to end and prevent grave violations against children; and requests the Secretary-General to ensure:

(a)   continued monitoring and reporting on grave violations against children through the Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism (MRM), including through the deployment of Child Protection Advisers and requests the Secretary-General to include information on this in his reporting to the Council; and

(b)   continued dialogue with the parties to the conflict towards the development and implementation of the aforementioned action plans, in accordance with resolution 1612 (2005) and subsequent resolutions on children and armed conflict;

“39.  Strongly condemns all killings resulting from inter-communal conflicts and other attacks against civilians by militia and armed elements, recognizes that local/traditional dispute mechanisms have their limitations in addressing serious criminal and human rights abuses resulting from inter-communal conflicts and armed violence such as killings, injuries, abduction, sexual and gender-based violence destruction of property and livelihoods, and notes the recurrent nature of these inter‑communal conflicts and the threat to civilian protection, peace and stability, urges the Government of Sudan, with the support of UNAMID and the United Nations country team, to address the ongoing impunity through ensuring accountability for human rights abuses and violations in situations of inter-communal conflicts in Darfur as well as attacks perpetrated by militias;

“40.  Expresses deep concern over the continued large volumes of arms, in particular small arms and light weapons that remain in Darfur and the use of such arms against civilians, including by militia, acknowledges the Government of Sudan’s efforts to reduce the number of weapons in Darfur through the arms collections campaign and its reported contribution to improving security conditions, requests UNAMID to continue to cooperate in this context with the Panel of Experts in order to facilitate their work, and encourages UNAMID to continue to provide technical and logistical assistance to the Sudan DDR Commission and urges the Government of Sudan to conduct a genuine, indiscriminate and comprehensive disarmament process, consistent with international small arms control standards, in full cooperation with UNAMID;

Humanitarian situation and displacement

“41.  Condemns all violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights, including those involving any form of sexual and gender-based violence, in particular the deliberate targeting of civilians, indiscriminate or disproportionate attacks; and demands that all parties in Darfur immediately end attacks targeting civilians, peacekeepers and humanitarian personnel, and comply with their obligations under international human rights law and international humanitarian law as applicable and that the Government of Sudan hold perpetrators accountable;

“42.  Expresses serious concern at the humanitarian situation in Darfur, at the threats to and attacks on humanitarian personnel and facilities; acknowledges improvements in humanitarian access, and expresses concern that access to some conflict areas where vulnerable populations reside remains restricted including in areas of conflict and insecurity, and at ongoing movement restrictions and bureaucratic impediments on humanitarian access by government forces, and to a lesser extent by militia groups and armed movements;

“43.  Expresses concern over the insufficient availability of funding for humanitarian actors; stresses the need for the timely issuing of visas and travel permits for humanitarian organizations, the rapid processing of technical agreements and reduced restrictions on recruitment and employment of personnel and the selection of partners; and demands that the Government of Sudan, all militia groups, including auxiliary units of the Government of Sudan forces, armed movements and all other stakeholders ensure the safe, timely impartial and unhindered access of humanitarian organizations and relief personnel, and the delivery of humanitarian assistance to populations in need throughout Darfur, in accordance with the relevant provisions of international law and United Nations guiding principles of humanitarian assistance, including humanity, impartiality, neutrality and independence;

“44.  Welcomes some improvements in the human rights situation, but condemns ongoing human rights violations and abuses in, and relating to, Darfur, including those involving extrajudicial killings, the excessive use of force, abduction of civilians, acts of sexual and gender-based violence, grave violations against children, and arbitrary arrests and detentions; calls on the Government of Sudan to investigate allegations of such violations and abuses and bring those responsible to justice; expresses deep concern about the situation of all those so detained, including civil society members, IDPs and a UNAMID human rights monitor; emphasizes the importance of ensuring, within its current mandate, UNAMID’s and other relevant organizations’ ability to monitor such cases and in this regard urges the Government of Sudan to extend full cooperation to UNAMID towards fulfilment of this goal and to provide accountability and access to justice for victims; calls on the Government of Sudan fully to respect its obligations, including by fulfilling its commitment to lift the state of emergency in Darfur, releasing all political prisoners, ensuring free expression and ensuring UNAMID monitors’ access and freedom of movement, including by refraining from arresting and detaining UNAMID staff;

“45.  Notes the Government of Sudan’s stated desire to see the displaced return to their areas of origin or resettle in their current areas of displacement; stresses that any returns should safe, dignified, voluntary and in accordance with applicable international law; welcomes the increase in the number of returns but regrets that many of these returns have been unsustainable because root causes of the conflict such as the absence of security, basic services, livelihoods, opportunities, and access to land and water in areas of return have not been sufficiently addressed; and further stresses the importance of achieving dignified and durable solutions for refugees and IDPs, and of ensuring their full participation in the planning and management of these solutions;

“46.  Demands that all parties to the conflict in Darfur create the conditions conducive to allowing the voluntary, informed, safe, dignified and sustainable return of refugees and IDPs, or, where appropriate, their local integration or relocation to a third location and within the context of its protection of civilians mandate, welcomes UNAMID’s renewed effort to enhance the protection of IDPs; stresses the need for the establishment of a mechanism in order to verify the extent to which these returns are voluntary and informed in nature, and underlines the importance of addressing land issues for the realization of durable solutions in Darfur;

“47.  Requests the United Nations and the Government of Sudan to consider the adverse implications of climate change, other ecological changes and natural disasters, among other factors, in their programmes in Darfur, including by undertaking risk assessments and risk management strategies relating to these factors and further requests the Secretary-General to provide information of such assessments in mandated reporting as appropriate;

Operational Challenges

“48.  Pays tribute to the UNAMID personnel who have paid the ultimate sacrifice in the line of duty for the cause of peace in Darfur; urges UNAMID to take all necessary measures within its rules of engagement to protect United Nations personnel and equipment; condemns the ongoing impunity for those who attack peacekeepers, and in this regard, urges the Government of Sudan to do its utmost to bring all perpetrators of any such crimes to justice and to cooperate with UNAMID to this end;

“49.  Welcomes increased opportunities for explosive remnants of war clearance with improvements in the security situation in some parts of Darfur, underscores that UNAMID, in cooperation with UNMAS, should continue to undertake clearance efforts with a particular focus on areas of return, and further requests UNAMID to cooperate with relevant partners, including the National Mine Action Centre, UNICEF, UNDP and ICRC to prepare for transition of the expected remaining work load upon UNAMID’s eventual exit;

“50.  Acknowledges continued improvements in the issuance of visas and the clearance of UNAMID shipments, freedom of movement and the processing of travel documents, reiterates its concern that some hindrances remain to UNAMID in the implementation of its mandate, including that some elements of UNAMID, particularly the human rights section, continue to suffer from targeted visa restrictions, ongoing delays in the processing of UNAMID containers, movement and access restrictions, caused by insecurity, acts of criminality and significant movement restrictions by the Government of Sudan, militia groups and armed movements, including restrictions from the Government of Sudan on the conduct of night patrols all over Darfur and other restrictions preventing UNAMID from reaching areas where there are instances of inter-communal conflict in a timely fashion; calls on all parties in Darfur to remove all obstacles to UNAMID’s full and proper discharge of its mandate, including by ensuring its security and freedom of movement; and in this regard, demands that the Government of Sudan, communicating and collaborating closely with its various agencies and all levels of local government bodies, recommit to and comply with the Status of Forces Agreement fully and without delay, particularly provisions relevant to the movement of patrols in conflict-affected areas and flight clearances, as well as those provisions relevant to the removal of obstacles to the use of UNAMID aerial assets, the timely processing of UNAMID’s equipment and rations at the port of entry to Sudan, and the timely issuing of visas;

“51.  Requests the Government of Sudan to grant expeditiously clearance for UNAMID flights between the five states of Darfur in order to ensure the Mission has a higher degree of flexibility and that this approval be communicated promptly with its various agencies and all levels of local government bodies, and underlines that the reconfiguration of UNAMID should be effectively accompanied by an improved ability to respond to threats quickly and adequately in order to protect civilians;

“52.  Expresses concern that UNAMID has been prevented from routinely returning to areas where it has closed team sites despite agreement with the Government of Sudan to allow them to do so, urges the Government of Sudan to ensure that UNAMID has unfettered access throughout Darfur, including to the areas from which it has withdrawn;

Exit strategy

“53.  Requests the Secretary General’s initial 90 day report to include a detailed and clearly benchmarked exit strategy for UNAMID based upon the recommendation in the Special Report (document S/2018/530) (Annex) that provisions of the DDPD could serve as the basis for indicators of achievement for the eventual exit of UNAMID, as well as existing Mission benchmarks and further updates as necessary, and with particular focus on those benchmarks and indicators for which Government of Sudan has responsibility in the areas of protection of civilians, security sector reform, rule of law, durable solutions and human rights, further requests that this report includes a recommendation on how progress against the comprehensive exit benchmarks should be monitored;

“54.  Takes note of consultations between the United Nations, the African Union and the Government of Sudan, notably in the frameworks of the Tripartite mechanism and the Joint Working Group over the past year, including discussion of operational and logistical issues pertaining to the Mission’s operation as well as the Mission’s exit strategy;

“55.  Calls upon UNAMID to work closely with the United Nations country team to identify ways to address gaps in capabilities to prepare for the Mission’s exit, including a resource mobilization plan to deliver the transition of those responsibilities, and further calls upon UNAMID, the United Nations country team, and all relevant UN agencies in consultation with the Government, to coordinate closely in the transfer of these responsibilities, and encourages the international community and donors to support the scaling up of the activities and programming of the United Nations country team in assisting the Government of Sudan’s continued efforts to maintain a sustainable peace;

Reporting

“56.  Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Council every 90 days following adoption of this resolution on UNAMID, including:

(i)     information on the political, humanitarian and security situation in Darfur, including detailed reporting on incidents of violence and attacks against civilians, including sexual and gender-based violence and grave violations against children, by whomsoever perpetrated and UNAMID’s access to facilitate humanitarian assistance, including from areas where UNAMID has withdrawn;

(ii)    developments and progress towards achievement of UNAMID’s strategic priorities set out in paragraph 11 of this resolution, benchmarks and indicators for eventual exit as outlined in paragraph 53 of this resolution, the joint UNAMID and United Nations country team transition strategy and the transition of tasks and responsibilities to the United Nations country team;

(iii)   information on violations of the Status of Forces Agreement, including those involving attacks or threats of attack on UNAMID, violations of international humanitarian law perpetrated by any party to the conflict, as well as access restrictions and significant operational obstacles such as those related to customs clearances and visas;

(iv)    progress in the implementation of the reconfiguration and reductions to UNAMIDs military component and its impact, including on protection needs and violations and abuses of human rights;

(v)     developments and progress on strategically addressing the underlying drivers of inter-communal conflict and the action plan on the prevention and resolution of inter-communal conflict;

(vi)    developments and progress in addressing the challenges facing UNAMID;

(vii)   enhanced, detailed and full information on abuses and violations of human rights, including those committed against women and children and violations of international humanitarian law;

(viii)  developments regarding UNAMID’s support for local conflict resolution mechanisms, including progress regarding the full and effective participation of women; and

(ix)    on the status of the peace process, including implementation of the DDPD and the AUHIP Roadmap; and

(x)     on the implementation of this resolution;

“57.  Decides to remain seized of the matter.”

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